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NG27. Syntax of ‘give up’ (2)

This week we apply NG26’s extended model.  Tabular analyses for typical declaratives are shown.  Also included are some sentences that are similar but have up in an invalid position; these show the point at which ungrammaticality is sensed.

I’ll distinguish different Cs by numeric subscripts on the relevant phonological words (giving or given in most examples).  The numbers apply only within the particular example; so giving2 in one example may not be the same as giving2 in another.

to-dative

When up precedes the to-phrase, there is no problem.

(5a) Nero is giving up Olivia to Poppaea

The C for giving is changed by the giving__to junction but in this example it has no effect.

The REL and SIC in the proposition created by giving__up are abbreviations for PARTICLE and SACRIFICE.

(5b) Nero is giving Olivia up to Poppaea

When up follows the to-phrase, giving__to will have imposed a different C (category) concept for giving which then disallows giving__up.

(5c) Nero is giving Olivia to Poppaea up

The sentence fails because there is no giving2__up junction in the lexicon.

to-dative, theme last

Again, when up precedes the to-phrase, there is no problem.

(8a) Nero is giving up to Poppaea Olivia

But when up follows to, giving__to will have imposed a different C for giving which then disallows giving__up.

(8b) Nero is giving to Poppaea up Olivia

The sentence fails because there is no giving2__up junction.

(8c) Nero is giving to Poppaea Olivia up

The sentence fails  because there is no giving2__up junction.

Double object

When up immediately follows the verb, giving__up imposes a different C for giving which allows an alternative rule for giving__(noun).  This rule imposes yet another C which disallows any following giving__(noun).

(20a) Nero is giving up Poppaea Olivia

The sentence fails because there is no giving2__(noun) junction.

When up follows the first noun, giving__(noun) will have imposed a different C for giving which allows an alternative rule for giving__up . This rule imposes yet another C which disallows any following giving__(noun).

(20b) Nero is giving Poppaea up Olivia

The sentence fails because there is no giving3__(noun) junction.

Passive, theme subject

When up precedes the to-phrase, there is no problem.

(11a) Olivia is given up to Poppaea by Nero

When up follows the to-phrase, given__to will have imposed a different C for given which then disallows given__up.

(11b) Olivia is given to Poppaea up by Nero

The sentence fails because there is no given2__up junction.

Passive, goal subject

When up immediately follows the main verb, given__up imposes a different C which disallows a following given__(noun).  This C applies also in (11a), allowing given__to  but having no other effect on that sentence.

(12a) Poppaea is given up Olivia by Nero

The sentence fails because there is no given2__(noun) junction.

When a bare noun immediately follows the main verb, given__(noun) imposes a different C for given.  This C disallows a following given__up.

(12b) Poppaea is given Olivia up by Nero

The sentence fails because there is no given2__up junction.

Contortions

Well, NG has survived up declaratives.  We still have to do up interrogatives which are even trickier.  But next week I’ll discuss why language needs such complication in placing a particle, when its meaning should be clear enough wherever it appears.  The lexicon has to hold lots of alternative Cs but our model works and the principle of ‘no ghost in the machine’ is not compromised.

Mr Nice-Guy

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